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Different Types of Angioplasty

Renal artery angioplasty Renal artery angioplasty is a procedure that aims at treating block renal arteries to ensure unrestricted flow of blood to the kidneys.

Indications
Renovascular hypertension
Renovascular hypertension that cannot be treated with medication
Loss of renal function

Congestive heart failure
Chest pain
Procedure
The procedure is performed by introducing a catheter in your body
The surgical site will be cleaned and local anaesthetics will be administered
This is followed by making a small incision to insert the guidewire and catheter
The capacitor is then carefully moved towards the affected artery with the help of imaging guidance
When the catheter is in position, the balloon present on its tip is inflated to clear the blockage
Once the narrow artery has been opened, the balloon is deflated and removed carefully, along with the catheter and guide wire

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Carotid angioplasty Carotid angioplasty is performed to treat obstruction in the carotid arteries, which are located on either side of the neck, with the aim of restoring blood flow to the brain.

Indications
Blockage of 70 per cent, or more, in the carotid artery
Restenosis post prior treatment

Stenosis that cannot be clear with any other treatment
Procedure
The procedure is performed via tiny incisions, under the influence of anaesthesia
The surgical site is sedated and a small incision is made to insert the catheter and guide wire
The catheter is then guided towards the affected artery to clear the blockage
When the catheter reaches the right position, the balloon on its tip is inflated to open the narrowed arterial walls
The blockage is cleared and the balloon is deflated
The surgical equipment are carefully removed and the incision is closed.

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Coronary angioplasty Coronary Angioplasty aims at widening or opening a narrowed coronary artery. The procedure uses a cardiac catheterization technique and detailed imaging guidance to remove the obstruction and restore normal blood flow.

Indications of coronary angioplasty
Angina (chest pain), that is not responding to medication
Progressive angina

Severe atherosclerosis
Heart attack
Procedure
The patient will be given IV fluids and medication, and the vitals will be monitored
This is followed by making a small incision to introduce the guidewire and catheter into the blood vessel
The catheter is slowly moved towards the blocked artery with the help of detailed imaging guidance
A contrast dye may be injected through the catheter to enhance visibility
Once the catheter is in the right position, the balloon present on its tip is inflated to open the narrowed walls.
Once the blockage has been cleared, the balloon is deflated and removed along with the catheter.

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Peripheral angioplasty Peripheral angioplasty procedure recommended to patients with peripheral arterial disease, so as to restore normal blood supply to the lower limbs.

Indications
Progressive peripheral artery disease

Peripheral artery disease that is not responding to medication
Procedure
You will be required to lie down, followed by the administration of intravenous fluid and medication.
The surgical site will be cleaned and local anaesthetics will be delivered
The catheter will be inserted into a major vessel via a tiny incision
The catheter will then be guided towards the blocked artery
Once the catheter is in the right position, the balloon at its tip will be inflated to clear the obstruction
After the restoration of normal blood flow, the balloon will be deflated and removed along with the catheter

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Venous angioplasty It is a surgical intervention performed to open clogged veins with the aim of restoring normal blood flow. The procedure uses the cardiac catheterization technique.

Indications
Acquired pulmonary vein stenosis

External compression due to malignant or benign tumours
Procedure
Will be required to lie down on your back, and intravenous medication and fluids will be started
Local anaesthetics will be administered at the surgical site, followed by making an incision
It will be carefully introduced and guided towards the blocked vessel using detailed imaging guidance
The balloon at the tip of the catheter will be carefully inflated and the obstruction will be cleared
After blood restoration is complete, the balloon will be deflated and removed along with the catheter

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Chronic limb-threatening ischemia Also known as critical limb ischemia, it is an advanced stage of peripheral artery disease in which the patient experiences persistent, gangrene and ulceration for more than 2 weeks.

Symptoms
Persistent pain
Change of appearance or sensation in the limb

Partial or complete paralysis of the limb
Pulselesness
Treatment
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia can be treated with the help of mechanical thrombolysis or revascularization. Amputation will be recommended in extreme cases.

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Rescue PTCA Rescue percutaneous coronary intervention is a surgical procedure that involves the mechanical reopening of an obstructed artery post failed thrombolytic treatment.

Indication
Acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction STEMI
Non–ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome
Angina

Symptoms like dyspnea, arrhythmia, dizziness or syncope
High-risk stress test findings

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